Over the years, numerous allyships have been forged and shattered. The Marine Treaty of 1674 between The Netherlands and England was one such notable agreement – and a piece (albeit reprinted) that Lorrendraaier now possesses!
by Caitlin Greyling
As with many older books and documents, this treaty bears a rather long and flattering title; Treaty Marine Between the Most Serene and Mighty Prince Charles II. by the Grace of God King of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith and the High and Mighty Lords the States General of the United Netherlands.
Two greatest European maritime powers, the two had clashed violently for decades. As mentioned on page 122 in The Court Minutes Of The East India Company 1674-1676, the treaty was forged as a result of peace being restored after the Treaty of Westminster 1674, shortly after the Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672–1674).
A number of prestigious statesmen and dignitaries were involved in the signing, including:
- Sir George Downing
- Joan Corver
- Sir William Thompson
- Lord Thomas Culpeper
- John Buckworth
- Sir Richard Ford
Don’t let the lofty title fool you, though — at just 15 pages long, it’s no scholar’s tome. In fact, the treaty is quite a quick and straightforward read. That is if you’re familiar with Dutch and Old English script. You see, this particular volume is the Dutch translation. Parts of which we’ve translated to modern-day English, all the better to enlighten you.
Bearing distinctly archaic lettering not dissimilar to that of Old English, the Treaty Marine isn’t the easiest on the eyes. However — from passports to oaths and declarations — its contents shed a lot of light on the newly-founded seafaring regulations of the day once deciphered.
When drawing up this treaty, the focus appeared to be on encouraging fair and friendly trade. If a skipper followed all the rules, not only was he entitled to entry into Dutch or English waters. He was guaranteed “all the assistance necessary” and “a favourable welcome.”
A warm welcome is promised to skippers who follow the rules, including paying tolls and declaring ship ownership and TUNS (weight).
You’ll also notice a number of spaces left blank in the excerpt of page 14 published above. All of these spaces were placed in the text for the purpose of filling in necessary details, as it is essentially a form template. Notably, to detail the TUNS of the ship, its flag state, the details of its skipper, and the date signed.
|soo Geestelijcke als Wereldtlijcke / die dese tegenwoordige sullen
sien ofte lesen: Wy Burgermeesters ende Regeerders der Stadt
………. doen te weten / ………………..
dat Schipper van het Schip …………….. voor ons gecompa-
reert is / ende met solemnelen Eede verklaert heeft / dat het Schip
………….. genaemt ……………..
groot omtrent ……………. lasten / min ofte meer …………..
waer van hy tegenwoordig Schipper is / de Ingezetenen deser Vert-
eenigde Provincien is toebehorende Soo waerlijck moeste hem Godt
Almachtigh helpen. Ende nadien het Ons ten hoogsten aengenaem
soude zijn / dat den voorseyden Schipper in alles wierde voortgehol-
pen / ‘t Welck hy eerlijck ende rechtvaerdigh sal ondernemen / alwaer
de geseyde Meester of Schipper met sijn Schip en inhebbende Wa-
ren magh belanden / ende aenkomen / dat met hem gunstelijck ge-
liefde te ontfangen / beleefdelijck te onthalen / ende na de wettige be-
talinge der ordinaris Tollen / ende andere dingen in te laten komen /
dat hy mag binnen komen / verblijven / U.E. Havenen / Rivieren en
Domeynen weder uytvaren / ende allerley recht van Zee-saecken /
Koopmanschappen en Commercien gebruycken in alle plaetsen daer
‘t hem best en geradenst duncken sal / vaerdigh ende bereydt zijnde
sulcks t’allen tijden met volkomen dankbaerheyt te erkennen; waer-
om Wy tot meerder geloof en getuygenisse dese tegenwoordige Acte
met Onse Handt ondertekent / ende met Ons Zegel hebben bekrag-
tight. Gegeven ……………… dagh …………….
in ‘t jaer Onses Heeren.
|To all spiritual and secular persons who shall see or read this present document:
We, the Mayor and Rulers of the city of [name of city], make known that the skipper of the ship named [name of ship]
has appeared before us and solemnly declared on oath that the ship is of about [number] tons, more or less,
and that he resides in the United Provinces, so help him God Almighty.
And since it would be most pleasing to us if the aforementioned skipper were assisted in all respects
in his honest and just undertaking, wherever he may arrive with his ship and goods, it is kindly requested
that he be received, entertained, and allowed to enter after the lawful payment of ordinary duties and other charges,
and may come in, stay, leave, and use all the rights of sea affairs, merchandise, and commerce in all places where
it may seem best and most advisable to him, being always ready to acknowledge this with complete gratitude.
Therefore, in order to give greater faith and testimony, we have signed this present Act with our hand and
confirmed it with our seal. Given on 2024 in the year of Our Lord.
(followed by the signature of the representatives of the King of England and of the States-General of the United Dutch Provinces)
The Reprint’s Publisher
The treaty mentions that it was published by a Paulus Scheltus (1664-1748). His printing or publishing house was responsible for publishing this particular reprint, as he would not yet have been of age when the treaty was first finalized. The original was printed by John Bill and Christopher Barker in 1674 and then reprinted by Stephen Swart in 1676.
Paulus Scheltus’ publishing house was also responsible for a number of other formal state publications, which it was contracted to print on behalf of the government. Notably, Paulus signs the marine treaty using the title: “Ordinaris Drucker van de Hoog Mogende Heeren Staten Generael der Vereenighde Nederlanden.” Or, “Ordinary Printer of the High Mighty Lords States General of the United Netherlands,” in English.
As estimated by the dealer who sold the treaty to Lorrendraaier, Paulus’ birth year also gives a clue as to the reprinting date of this particular treaty document. Most likely, it would have been published at some point during Paulus Scheltus’ youth, middle-aged, or later years — from around 1700 onwards.
Likely A 1714 Reprint
According to the publication, Adresboek — Nederlandse Drukkers en Boekverkopers tot 1700 (page 107), Paulus Scheltus was appointed “Printer of: Council of State 1714-1734, The State 1694-1745, and Provincial State 1688-1745.”
As such, it’s safe to conclude that our publication was printed after 1714 when he was appointed as printer of the Council of State.